Oral Health Related Quality of Life among Tamil Speaking Adults Attending a Dental Institution in Chennai, Southern India ZC114-ZC120
Dr. Deva Priya Appukuttan,
Reader, Department of Periodontics, SRM Dental College and Hospital, Ramapuram, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Introduction: Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) indicates an individual’s perception of how their well-being and quality of life is influenced by oral health. It facilitates treatment planning, assessing patient centred treatment outcomes and satisfaction.
Aim: The study aimed to identify the factors influencing OHRQoL among Tamil speaking South Indian adult population.
Materials and Methods: Non-probability sampling was done and 199 subjects aged 20-70 years were recruited for this observational study. The subjects were requested to fill a survey form along with the validated Tamil General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Tml) questionnaire in the waiting area following which clinical examination was done by a single experienced Periodontist.
Results: The mean score with standard deviation for physical dimension was 4.34±0.96, psychological dimension was 4.03±1.13 and pain was 4.05±1.09 on GOHAI. Greater impacts were seen for psychosocial dimensions like pleased with the appearance of teeth/denture Q7 (3.7±1.2), worried about the problems with teeth/denture Q9 (3.7±1) and pain or discomfort in teeth Q12 (3.8±1). Functions like swallowing Q3 (4.5±0.8) and speaking Q4 (4.6±0.7) were minimally affected. As age increased subjects perceived more negative impacts as indicated by lower ADD-GOHAI and higher SC-GOHAI scores (p<0.01). Subjects complaining of bad breath, bleeding gums and Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) problems, reported poor OHRQoL (p<0.05). It was observed that as self-perceived oral and general health status deteriorated, OHRQoL also worsened (p<0.01). Subjects with missing teeth, cervical abrasion, restorations, gingival recession and mobility had more impacts on OHRQoL (p<0.05). Subjects diagnosed with periodontitis had lower OHRQoL as reported on the scale than gingivitis subjects (p<0.01).
Conclusion: In this study minimal impact was seen in all the three dimensions assessed with GOHAI. Factors like age, education, employment status, income, self-reported oral health, self-perceived general health, satisfaction with oral health, perceived need for treatment and denture wearing status influenced perceived OHRQoL. Bad breath, bleeding gums, TMJ problems, more number of missing teeth, decayed teeth, cervical abrasion, gingival recession and mobility were associated with poor OHRQoL.