Modified Computed Tomography Severity Index for Evaluation of Acute Pancreatitis and its Correlation with Clinical Outcome: A Tertiary Care Hospital Based Observational Study TC01-TC05
Dr. Imran Gattoo,
Registrar, Department of Pediatrics, Government Medical College Srinagar, J&K-190008, India.
Background: Acute Pancreatitis is a very common condition leading to the emergency visits in both developed and developing countries. Computed Tomography plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis and subsequent management of pancreatitis. The modified CT severity index includes a simplified assessment of pancreatic inflammation and necrosis as well as an assessment of extra pancreatic complications.
Aim: To study role of modified computed tomography severity index in evaluation of acute pancreatitis and its correlation with clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: This was a hospital based prospective correlative study done on patients of all age groups referred to the Department of Radio diagnosis from the various indoor and outdoor departments of the hospital, with clinical/Laboratory/ultrasonography findings suggestive of acute pancreatitis. The severity of pancreatitis was scored using Modified CT severity index & CT severity index and classified into mild, moderate and severe categories. Total of 50 patients of acute pancreatitis presenting to the emergency department of our hospital were included in the study. Clinical outcome parameters for correlation collected from respective referral departments included, the length of hospital stay (in days), need for surgical intervention, need for percutaneous intervention (aspiration and drainage), evidence of infection in any organ system (combination of a fever > 100°F and elevated WBC >15,000/ mm³ ), evidence of organ failure (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg or need of ventilation, systolic BP of < 90 mm Hg, serum creatinine of >300µmoles/L or urine output of < 500 ml / 24 h) and death.
Results: The age of the patients in the study group was in the range of 17 to 80 years. Maximum patients were in the age group 40-50 years (42.0%). The mean age was 42.32 years. Out of 50 cases, 33 (66%) were male and 17 (34%) were females with a male to female ratio of 2:1. Cholelithiasis was found to be most common aetiological factor for acute pancreatitis in 40% cases. Alcoholic pancreatitis was seen in 36% of cases. Together cholelithiasis and alcoholism accounted for 76% of cases. Pleural effusion was the most common extra-pancreatic complication, 28 patients (56%), followed by ascites. Majority of patients were categorized as severe pancreatitis (44%). 38% patients were grouped into moderate pancreatitis and 18% were categorized in mild pancreatitis. The outcome parameters in terms of length of hospital stay, need of intervention, development of infection, and development of organ failure were more in patients with higher modified CT severity index.
Conclusion: In conclusion CECT was found to be an excellent imaging modality for diagnosis, establishing the extent of disease process and in grading its severity. The Modified CT Severity Index is a simpler scoring tool and more accurate than the Balthazar CT Severity Index. In this study, it had a stronger statistical correlation with the clinical outcome, be it the length of hospital stay, development of infection, occurrence of organ failure and overall mortality. It could also predict the need for interventional procedures.