Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Original article / research
Year : 2018 | Month : July | Volume : 12 | Issue : 7 | Page : QC09 - QC12

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Adverse Birth and Infant Outcomes among Pregnant Women in Rural Southern India

Noah Kojima, Nandita Sharma, Kavitha Ravi, Anjali Arun, Claire C Bristow, Sunil Sethi, Jeffrey D Klausner, Purnima Madhivanan

1. Medical Student, School of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, California, USA. 2. Researcher, Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Haryana and Punjab, India. 3. Laboratory Director, Department of Research, Public Health Research Institute of India, Mysore, India. 4. Laboratory Director, Department of Research, Public Health Research Institute of India, Mysore, India. 5. Fellow, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of California San Diego, CA, USA. 6. Researcher, Department of Medical Microbiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, Haryana and Punjab, India. 7. Professor, School of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California Los Angeles, California, USA. 8. Associate Professor, Department of Research, Public Health Research Institute of India, Mysore, India.

Correspondence Address :
Dr. Noah Kojima,
10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
E-mail: nkojima@ucla.edu

Abstract

Introduction: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) in pregnancy have been reported to be associated with adverse birth and infant outcomes.

Aim: To examine the relationship between adverse birth outcomes and select STIs in a cohort of pregnant women in rural Southern India, using stored vaginal samples.

Materials and Methods: Pregnant women with (n=208) and without (n=213) adverse birth outcomes were matched on women’s age and parity. Adverse birth or infant outcomes were defined as newborns that weighed less than 2.5 kilograms, were delivered before 37 weeks of gestation, or were stillborn, died, or admitted to an intensive care unit at birth. Those women were compared to pregnant women who delivered a full-term baby that had normal birthweight. A one-tailed prevalence ratio was calculated. Mean cycle threshold values were compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic women with Trichomonas Vaginalis (TV) infection.

Results: Among the 208 women with adverse birth outcomes, 22 (10.6%) tested positive for any STI: 15 (7.2%) tested positive for TV, 1 (0.5%) for Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT), 1 (0.5%) for Neisseria Gonorrhoeae (NG), 2 (1.0%) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and 3 (1.4%) for Hepatitis B. Among 213 women with normal birth outcomes, 14 (6.6%) tested positive for any STI, 12 (5.6%) tested positive for only TV monoinfection, 1 (0.5%) for NG monoinfection, 1 (0.5%) for every tested STI, i.e., TV, CT, and NG. In the present study, we found that women with adverse birth outcomes had a higher ratio of STIs than those without adverse birth outcomes (prevalence ratio of 1.7 {95% CI: 0.9-3.3]}. Among women who tested positive for any STI with or without adverse birth outcomes, 67.7% were asymptomatic. Among pregnant women that tested positive for TV infection, there was no difference between mean cycle threshold values between symptomatic and asymptomatic women.

Conclusion: Adverse birth outcomes were more common among women with STIs. Nucleic acid amplification testing identified modest numbers of STIs among pregnant women. Many women with positive nucleic acid amplification tests were not treated for infections because they were asymptomatic.

Keywords

Pregnancy, Trichomonas vaginalis

How to cite this article :

Noah Kojima, Nandita Sharma, Kavitha Ravi, Anjali Arun, Claire C Bristow, Sunil Sethi, et al.. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AND ADVERSE BIRTH AND INFANT OUTCOMES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN RURAL SOUTHERN INDIA. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2018 July [cited: 2018 Jul 16 ]; 12:QC09-QC12. Available from
http://www.jcdr.net/back_issues.asp?issn=0973-709x&year=2018&month=July&volume=12&issue=7&page=QC09-QC12&id=11752

DOI and Others

DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2018/32378.11752

Date of Submission: Sep 27, 2017
Date of Peer Review: Dec 08, 2017
Date of Acceptance: Feb 21, 2018
Date of Publishing: Jul 01, 2018

FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: NONE.

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