The Expanding Spectrum of Zika Virus Transmission: A Systematic ReviewCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Srinivas Medavarapu,
Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, All Saints University School of Medicine,
Roseau, Dominica, West Indies.
Introduction: Large numbers of confirmed Zika Virus (ZIKV) infections have been reported as a result of vector-borne and non-vector-borne transmission. With a recent ZIKV outbreak, several methods of transmission have been identified during this pandemic. Knowledge of transmission methods is essential to prevent further spread.
Aim: To conduct a literature review on ZIKV and its methods of transmission, to improve the understanding of how the virus may spread.
Materials and Methods: Systematic literature review was performed on methods of ZIKV transmission including: vector-borne, sexual, mother to foetus, blood transfusion, and breast milk.
Results: A total of 18 articles were reviewed involving 2573 cases. Vector-borne transmission was most prevalent in ZIKV cases, followed by mother to foetus vertical transmission and sexual transmission. ZIKV has been detected in blood, urine, semen, saliva, amniotic fluid and breast milk. However, ZIKV is not present in all bodily fluids at one time. Blood and semen have proved to be infectious and a contributory to the spread of ZIKV. It is unknown whether breast milk is infectious to neonates.
Conclusion: Our systematic review demonstrates the influence of different methods of ZIKV transmission possess with the spread of ZIKV. It provides significant implications on testing, prevention and control of ZIKV. Finally, it provides a guide for further research opportunities.
Blood transfusion, Mother to foetus transmission, Sexual transmission, Vector-borne transmission
Denise Araujo, Silvia Vilas Boas, Uyi Faluyi, Srinivas Medavarapu. THE EXPANDING SPECTRUM OF ZIKA VIRUS TRANSMISSION:
A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2017 November [cited: 2018 Jan 23 ]; 11:OE03-OE08. Available from
Date of Submission: Apr 05, 2017
Date of Peer Review: May 04, 2017
Date of Acceptance: Aug 18, 2017
Date of Publishing: Nov 01, 2017
FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
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