Relative Efficacy of Piracetam, Modafinil and Citicoline on Cognitive Function in an Animal ModelCorrespondence Address :
Dr. Veena Nayak,
Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal-576104, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Nootropic drugs or cognitive enhancers are pharmacological agents that improve cognitive function and memory by various mechanisms. Drugs like piracetam, modafinil and citicoline have been used as nootropic agents.
Aim: To compare the relative efficacy of nootropics like piracetam, modafinil and citicoline on learning and memory in rats using the Morris water maze test.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Wistar rats were used for the study. The animals were divided into five groups (n=6). The groups I to V received gum acacia orally, scopolamine 2 mg/kg intraperitoneally, piracetam (52.5 mg/kg), modafinil (2.5 mg/kg), citicoline (25 mg/kg) respectively orally for twenty days. Learning and memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze test. The animals were trained in the Morris water maze on the last five days of dosing. Scopolamine 2 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally to the above groups of animals (except Groups I and II) for induction of amnesia, 45 minutes before the behavioural test.
Results: Scopolamine induced marked impairment of memory evidenced by significant reduction (p<0.01) in the number of entries and time spent in the target quadrant when compared to the control group. There was significant (p<0.05) increase in the number of entries and time spent in target quadrant of the Morris water maze in the animals who were pretreated with piracetam, modafinil and citicoline, in comparison to the scopolamine treated group. Amongst the three nootropics, modafinil and citicoline showed significant (p<0.05) memory enhancement in comparison to piracetam.
Conclusion: Modafinil and citicoline can significantly reverse the memory impairment in scopolamine induced amnesia model in comparison to piracetam. However, further studies are warranted to confirm this result.
Dementia, Memory, Morris water maze, Nootropics
Farrukh Ahmad, Veena Nayak, Chaitanya Malalur, Rinz Mathew, Amruta Tripathy, Kurady Laxminarayana Bairy. RELATIVE EFFICACY OF PIRACETAM, MODAFINIL AND CITICOLINE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN AN ANIMAL MODEL. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research [serial online] 2017 November [cited: 2017 Nov 22 ]; 11:FC01-FC03. Available from
Date of Submission: Feb 24, 2017
Date of Peer Review: Apr 10, 2017
Date of Acceptance: Aug 24, 2017
Date of Publishing: Nov 01, 2017
FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None.
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