Possible Role of Bcl-2 Expression in Metastatic and Non Metastatic Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma ZC51-ZC54
Dr. V Pavithra,
Postgraduate, Department of Oral Pathology, MS Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, Bengaluru-560054, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Oral carcinoma is a global health problem. India accounts for one-third of world burden with high prevalence rate of 2.5 million and mortality rate of 5.5 lacs per year. Oral carcinogenesis is a multistage process that frequently involves invasion and metastasis that needs early detection and treatment to improve the overall quality of life. The ability of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) to metastasize to lymph nodes does not always show a relationship with clinical staging. A spectrum of molecular mechanisms is involved in carcinogenesis, where defect in the regulation of apoptosis is assumed to contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of cancer. Apoptosis regulatory genes include the antiapoptotic protein such as B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) gene that might be used as a molecular marker to evaluate the biological behaviour of oral cancer.
Aim: To evaluate and correlate the Bcl-2 expression in OSCC patients with lymphnode metastasis and without metastasis.
Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 30 samples, 15 cases of metastatic and 15 non-metastatic primary OSCC. All the cases were stained for routine Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E), and Bcl-2 antibody by immunohistochemistry. The H&E stained sections were evaluated for Lymphocytic Infiltrate (LI) and Pattern Of Invasion (POI). Bcl-2 stained sections were evaluated for staining intensity and distribution. The differences between the groups were statistically analysed using chi-square test.
Results: The histopathological parameters, LI and POI did not show any statistical difference between the study groups. Expression of Bcl-2 in OSCC was 33.3% among the study groups, where metastatic group showed a positive expression of 13.3% and 20% in non-metastatic OSCC that did not show statistically significance among the study groups.
Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the expression of Bcl-2 between the study groups. Apoptosis is regulated by interaction among the Bcl-2 gene family. Hence, evaluation of Bcl-2 along with other apoptotic regulating proteins could define the role in pathogenesis and prognosis of metastatic and non-metastatic OSCC.