Nagging Presence of Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhoea in North India DC06-DC09
Dr. Rama Chaudhry,
Professor, Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110029, India.
Introduction: Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhoea (CDAD) is a significant cause of morbidity in hospitalised patients worldwide. The data on clinical epidemiology of this disease in Indian subcontinent is scarce.
Aim: To evaluate the risk factors and clinical course of patients with CDAD.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was planned at our tertiary care centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, whereby, all patients who had nosocomial diarrhea between 2010 and 2014 were included in the study. Their clinical and laboratory profile were recorded using structured questionnaire and their stool samples were subjected to ELISA for detection of toxins A and B (Premier toxins A and B). Those patients who had toxins A and B in their stool samples were diagnosed as CDAD. The clinical and laboratory profile of CDAD patients were further analysed.
Results: A total of 791 patients with nosocomial diarrhea were included in this study. CDAD was diagnosed in a total of 48 patients (6%). The year wise breakdown of the positive patients is as follows: 7/135 (5.2%), 4/156 (2.6%), 5/141 (3.5%), 9/193 (4.7%) and 23/166 (13.8%) respectively. A total of 16/48 (34%) of CDAD cases belonged to the age group of 51-60 years. Malignancy (n=15, 31.25%) was the most common underlying pathological condition. All the patients had a history of antibiotic intake. Most common antibiotic used in the patients of CDAD was third generation cephalosporins (n=27, 56.25%). The use of clindamycin, carbapenems and colistin increased in the year 2014. Mean duration of hospital stay was 9.8 days. Diarrhoea was associated with fever in 50% of the patients while abdominal pain was seen in 39.6% of the patients.
Conclusion: The control of Clostridium difficile infection suffers from the rampant use of higher antibiotics. There is a need for proper implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programmes and better hospital infection control to stop the transmission of this nagging bug.