Detection of Cytomegalovirus in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from HIV-Positive Individuals with Community Acquired Pneumonia DC41-DC43
Dr. Arati Mane,
Scientist D, Department of Microbiology, National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
Introduction: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is one of the frequent viral pneumonia reported in persons with HIV infection. Knowledge of pulmonary CMV infection is important for deciding appropriate diagnostic strategies. However, there is scanty literature addressing the role of CMV aetiology among HIV positive individuals presenting with Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) using Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) samples from India.
Aim: To detect CMV in BAL fluid from HIV-positive individuals presenting with CAP.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using 107 archival BAL samples collected from consecutive HIV-positive patients presenting with CAP as per the Indian Chest Society and National College of Chest Physicians guidelines at the Department of Chest and Tuberculosis, Sassoon General Hospitals, Pune, India. The samples were tested for CMV by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) targeting the IRL11 region at the National AIDS Research Institute, Pune.
Results: Of the 107 BAL samples tested, 8 (7.4 %) were positive for CMV, while CMV was the sole pathogen in 5 (4.7%) cases. Co-infection with other pathogens was seen in 3 patients and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pneumocystis jiroveci and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the co-pathogens. Five patients had fatal clinical outcome of which three had CMV as the sole pathogen.
Conclusion: Ours is the first study to detect Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in bronchoalveolar lavage samples from HIV-positive individuals presenting with community acquired pneumonia from India and indicates the need for further multicentre studies to understand pulmonary CMV infection, which will eventually help in designing appropriate diagnostic strategies and therapeutic interventions.