Normative Values of Physical Fitness Test in the Elderly: A Community Based Study in an Urban Population in Northeast India YC01-YC06
Dr. Prasanta Kumar Bhattacharya,
Professor and Head, Department of General Medicine, North Eastern Indira Gandhi Regional Institute of Health and
Medical Sciences, Mawdiangdiang, Shillong-793018, Meghalaya, India.
Introduction: Physical inactivity exposes elderly people to higher risk of diseases. Assessing their functional fitness using fitness assessment tools like Senior Fitness Test (SFT) is helpful in geriatric care. Determination of normative values of SFT increases its interpretability of interindividual and intergroup performances scores and usefulness.
Aim: To determine normative values of SFT in geriatric population in an urban community setting.
Materials and Methods: A community based prospective study in 400 elderly participants (284 men, 116 women), aged =65 years, selected by multistage random sampling from 60 municipal wards of Guwahati city in Northeast India. Descriptive statistics, percentiles, univariate Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction methods were used. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Mean ages in males and females were 69.80±3.82 and 67.25±2.57 years. Mean height, weight and BMI in males and females respectively were 165.61±5.36 cm and 161.03±7.93 cm; 63.63±5.99 kg and 55.54±6.74 kg; 23.2±2.03 kg/m2 and 21.5±3.42 kg/m2. Males aged 65-69 years had highest BMI (23.4±2.11 kg/m2) while those =80 had lowest (21.8±1.30 kg/m2). Females aged 70-74 years had highest BMI (23.3±3.50 kg/m2) while 65-69 years (21.3±3.39 kg/m2) had lowest. ‘Arm-curl’ test showed maximum values in 70-79 year and 65-69 year age-groups in males and females respectively (11.4±3.89; 14.5±4.63). In ‘chair-stand’ test, maximum values were in 65-69 year for both sexes (males=15.2±4.64; females=13.6±4.26 respectively). In ‘back-scratch’ and ‘chair-sit and reach’ tests, maximum values were found in age-groups 70-74 and 65-69 in males and females respectively (10.5±9.11 and 13.4±8.91; 9.8±7.28 and -8.4±6.92). In ‘8-foot up-and-go’ test, maximum time to perform in males and females were in =80 and 75-79 year groups respectively (13.9±4.11; 20.3±0). In both sexes, maximum values of ‘2-minute step up’ test was found in 65-69 year age groups (male=67.4±21.9; female=62.7±16.9). In both sexes, changes of performance scores with age were observed in all tests, with maximum changes observed in ‘back-scratch’ test (male=131.4%, female= 157%).
Conclusion: The normative values obtained for SFT of each test score can be applied in aged population of similar settings to assess physical fitness.