Surgical Outcome of Epicanthus and Telecanthus Correction by Double Z-Plasty and Trans-Nasal Fixation with Prolene Suture in Blepharophimosis Syndrome NC05-NC08
Dr. Salil Kumar Mandal,
Associate Professor, Department of Orbit and Oculoplasty, Regional Institute of Ophthalmology Medical College, Kolkata-700073,
West Bengal, India.
Introduction: Blepharophimosis Syndrome (BPES) is a complex and rare disease characterized by epicanthus inversus, telecanthus, lateral ectropion, narrowed or shortened interpalpebral fissure distance and ptosis. It is mostly bilateral and may or may not be symmetrical. It is typically inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. In sporadic cases, the disease may occur without a prior family history as a genetic mutation from a deletion or translocation of the FOXL2 gene, which maps to chromosome 3q23. Surgical treatment of this disease poses an oculoplastic challenge due to multiple complex eyelid deformities.
Aim: To evaluate the functional and cosmetic outcome of telecanthus and epicanthus correction by a Mustarde’s rectangular double Z-Plasty and trans-nasal fixation using 1-0 prolene suture in BPES.
Materials and Methods: This was prospective, interventional study of 16 patients over a period of three years. In this study, all patients had BPES with prominent epicanthus and telecanthus. Mustarde’s double Z-plasty and trans-nasal fixation with 1-0 prolene suture was performed in the first of a two-stage operation. If ectropion was present, the lateral ectropion was corrected by a base-out flap transfer from the upper eyelid to the lower eyelid. After three months, a 2nd stage was undertaken, involving a lateral canthoplasty for horizontal widening of a short palpebral fissure and a tarso frontalis sling with silicone rod for correction of moderate to severe ptosis. Patients were followed up for six months to one year with postoperative ophthalmologic examinations and photographs.
Results: Out of 16 patients, 10 were females and six were males. All the patients had bilateral involvement. In this study preoperative Inner Intercanthal Distance (IICD) ranged from 38 mm to 42 mm and the mean IICD was 41.2±0.57 mm. Postoperative IICD ranged from 31 mm to 34 mm. Horizontal Palpebral Fissure Length (HPFL) ranged from 20 mm to 23 mm and the mean value of HPFL was 21.50 mm preoperatively. Postoperative HPFL ranged from 26 mm to 29 mm and had a mean value of 28.50 mm, which was much improved after a combined correction of telecanthus and lateral canthoplasty. The mean preoperative IICD and HPFL ratio was 1.77 and was reduced to a postoperative value of 1.2. The Marginal Reflex Distance1 (MRD-1) test value improved from +1.25 mm to +3.50 mm postoperatively after placement of a tarsofrontalis sling with silicone rod using the Fox's Pentagon technique. In this study, two eyes had minimal unequal correction but were cosmetically and functionally acceptable. Correction of IICD is possible up to 6 mm. No major complication e.g., CSF rhinorrhea was noted in this series and preoperative prominent epicanthal folds were abolished.
Conclusion: Here we propose a two-staged procedure involving a combined Mustarde’s double Z-plasty with transnasal fixation using a 1-0 prolene suture with a flap transfer from the upper lid to the lower lid in the first stage and a lateral canthoplasty with a tarsofrontalis sling and silicone rod in the second stage. This technique is effective to correct epicanthus, telecanthus, ptosis and lateral ectropion in BPES with good cosmetic and functional outcome.