Acute Renal Failure in Dengue Infection OC10-OC13
Dr. Girish Pamappa Vakrani
Assistant Professor, Department of Nephrology, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center,
Bengaluru-560066, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Acute Renal Failure (RF) is a rare but well recognized complication of Dengue Infection (DI). There has been paucity of published data regarding renal involvement in DI.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to elucidate different clinical presentations, disease outcomes of DI. To study the frequency, severity and predictors of RF in DI.
Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed either as Dengue Fever (DF) or Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome (DHF/DSS) respectively were enrolled for this study. The diagnostic criteria for DI were febrile illness associated with one of the following: 1) detection of dengue-specific IgM capture antibody or Non-Structural Protein1 (NS1) antigen; or 2) a four-fold or greater increase of dengue-specific IgG capture antibody by ELISA and haemoagglutination inhibition assay. Patients were diagnosed as having Acute RF, if serum creatinine was >1.2 mg/dl or who showed improvement by 50% in serum creatinine from the initial value. It is an observational study of medical charts, data of age, gender, and medical history of any underlying diseases in association with the severity of DI of each patient recorded. All of the laboratory results were collected. Parameters that influenced the clinical presentations and outcomes for development of classical DF or DHF/DSS in patients with or without RF were analysed and compared. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried. The Statistical software namely SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, Med Calc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0 and R environment ver.2.11.1 were used.
Results: Most common symptoms were fever followed by headache and pain in abdomen. Among the patients with RF, all patients had recovery. The patients with DHF/DSS were more susceptible to develop renal failure compared to DF group. There were statistically significant higher frequencies of renal failure, haemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, low serum cholesterol. Patients in the RF group also had significantly higher percentages of shock, haemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, raised AST and low serum cholesterol compared to non-RF group. There were no mortality and none of them had to receive renal replacement therapy during hospitalization.
Conclusion: Patients with DHF/DSS were more susceptible to develop renal failure compared to DF group. Patients in the RF group had higher percentages of shock, haemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, raised AST and low serum cholesterol.