The Study of Different Clinical Pattern of Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Common Precipitating Events and Independent Mortality Factors OC42-OC46
Dr. Rajendra Prasad Shivaswamy,
164 Siddalingeshwaranagara, Bogadi 2nd Stage, North Mysuru, Mysuru-570026, Karnataka, India.
Introduction: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients in spite of major advances in the pathogenesis and more standardized diagnosis and treatment.
Aim: To find out the different patterns of clinical presentations, common precipitating factors and independent mortality factors in DKA.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital, Mysuru on 110 patients from November 2007 to October 2009. Clinical presentation and precipitating factors of DKA were monitored. Univariate analysis was done to identify statistically significant risk factors contributing to DKA mortality and was used for multiple logistic regressions to identify independent mortality predictors. A scoring methodology was used to identify the risk of having multiple risk factors in an individual.
Results: In this study, the mean age was 42.33 years, with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The most common complaints were vomiting and generalized weakness seen in 55 (50%) and 49 (44.5%) cases respectively. The most common precipitating factors were infections and poor compliance to antidiabetic treatment seen in 57 (52%) and 23 (21%) cases respectively. The predictors of mortality included age equal to or more than 65 years, Depressed Mental State (DMS) in the first 24 hour, insulin requirement equal to or more than 50 units in the 12 hours to bring blood glucose to less than 300 mg%, fever in the first 24 hours, shock in the first 24 hours, RBS persistently equal to or more than 300 mg% even after 12 hours with standard treatment protocol, fluid requirement equal to or more than 6 L in the first 24 hours, pH less than 7.2 and bicarbonate less than 15 mmol/l at presentation were statistically significant predictors of mortality. Multivariate analysis failed to identify an independent mortality factor; but, adverse parameters of more than 5 was significantly associated with death.
Conclusion: Risk stratification of patients with DKA is possible from simple clinical and laboratory variables available during the first day of hospitalization and further channeling the patients to ICU at the correct time to prevent mortalities.