Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, ISSN - 0973 - 709X

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Original article / research
Table of Contents - Year : 2016 | Month : June | Volume : 10 | Issue : 6 | Page : EC08 - EC11

Anaemia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Based on Iron Studies and Soluble Transferrin Receptor Levels EC08-EC11

Salony Mittal, Preeti Agarwal, Anupam Wakhlu, Ashutosh Kumar, Raj Mehrotra, Saumya Mittal

Correspondence
Dr. Mittal Salony,
Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology, KMC, Light House Hill Road,
Mangalore—575001, Karnataka, India.
E-mail: drsalonymittal23@gmail.com

Introduction: Haematological alterations such as anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia are frequent in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Ferritin being an acute phase reactant can be falsely elevated in lupus cases.

Aim: To evaluate the haematological alterations and to re-categorise the types of anemia by soluble transferrin receptor levels in diagnosed cases of SLE.

Materials and Methods: A sample of 30 newly diagnosed ANA positive SLE patients was taken. Complete blood counts, ESR, reticulocyte count, coagulation studies, diluted Russel Viper Venom Test (dRVVT), mixing studies, serological tests, high sensitivity CRP along with iron profile, transferrin saturation, soluble transferrin receptor (sol TFR) levels, anti-beta2 glycoprotein1, direct and indirect Coomb’s test were estimated in cases diagnosed as SLE. Clinical symptoms were co-related with and Systemic Lupus Erythaematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) was estimated.

Results: Anaemia was the most prevalent haematological alteration followed by thrombocytopenia. Further sub typing of anaemia was done by serum ferritin levels and using sol TFR assays. Ferritin is an acute phase reactant; it underestimated iron deficiency in patients of SLE. When sol TFR was used; patients with pure Anaemia of Chronic Disease (ACD) reduced from 68% to 26%, those with pure IDA reduced from 32% to 16% and a group with co-existing IDA & ACD (58%) was defined {Agreement=53%, p=0.09} by sol TFR which co-related with clinical response to Iron therapy in these patients. CRP was significantly raised in association with disease activity. Fever (p<0.0001), arthritis (p<0.03) were significantly related and CRP was elevated (p<0.04) in cases with high SLEDAI (severe flare).

Conclusion: Thus, in SLE, anaemia is the most frequent hematological alteration; iron deficiencies supercede in contrast to ACD and further autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Sol TFR emerged as a better parameter to detect iron deficiency in patients of non- haemolytic anaemia in contrast to iron profile and ferritin levels.